The Pilgrim

Composed Shaun Davey


  1. Himlico's Map; Colm Cille Leaves Derry.
  2. Gair Na Gairbe
  3. A Walk In The Ocean
  4. The Pilgrim
  5. Colum Cille's Farewell to Ireland
  6. The Land of The Picts
  7. Iona
  8. Briochan and Columba
  9. Storm at Sea
  10. A White Wave Foams Over
  11. Ymadawiad Arthur
  12. St. Manchan's Prayer
  13. Samson Peccator Episcopus
  14. St. Matthews Point
  15. Danse Plin
  16. Bal Plin
  17. Dance An Dro
  18. Santiago
  19. Vigo
  20. The Deer's Cry
  21. God Be With Me
  22. A`Ghrian'

Sleeve Notes

A Celtic Suite for Orchestra, Soloists, Pipe Band and Choir.

'The Pilgrim' was first released as an album at the end of 1983. It consists of a selection of pieces from` The Lorient Festival Suite', commissioned by the Lorient Interceltic Festival and mostly recorded live at its debut performance in Brittany earlier that year. The proposal by the Committee des Fetes had appeared to be straightforward: a suite for orchestra and celtic soloists representing the seven Celtic countries or regions (Scotland, Ireland, Isle of Man, Wales, Cornwall, Brittany, Galicia). Thus conceived it was to be an expansion of an idea central to the `Brendan Voyage' in which a traditional soloist performs with an orchestra. The previous year, 1982, with uilleann piper Liam O'Flynn and specially assembled festival orchestras this work had, received debut live performances in Brittany. In Lorient a large and enthusiastic audience had, with typical Breton generosity, demanded and received four encores.

One calm summer evening at dusk one year later, I stood with conductor Noel Kelehan beside the stage in the football stadium and watched that same 5000-strong audience return for the premiere of the new suite. During the 20 minutes before the performance began, the focus of seven months effort seemed to narrow into two main concerns. Firstly, although still at a level that was hard to articulate, there lurked in my mind the suspicion that the suite was marred by flaws resulting from the creation of a large design in too short a time. Secondly and despite everyone's commitment and hard work, I knew that the concert was likely to have technical problems. Thus shrouded in the heavy mists of personal responsibility I engaged in the traditional exchange of an impolite french word festival president Pierre Guergadic and that sense of fatalism which comes to those for whom time has run out. By the end of the evening, thanks in part to the patient support of the large festival audience, the concert came to a successful conclusion and those pieces which has been the more obvious favourites were replayed as encores. The following day, however, praise was mixed with criticism: for example, did I not feel, I was asked on radio, that the suite was merely a patchwork? Such implied lack of cohesion was unavoidably evident in the ensuing 'Pilgrim' album which contained selected highlights and which, due to the limitations of vinyl, halved the suites running time of 80 minutes. On the other hand if the suites was indeed a patchwork, I wondered, could any such collection of widely differing pieces avoid being so? Certainly, I was forced to admit, unlike the 'Brendan Voyage' the 'Pilgrim' had no narrative thread to hold it together, Yet it did have the drama of successive soloists and celtic ensembles and with them was implied a sense of journey. In time I came to recognise that my initial failure to formalise that journey, to make it explicit and in so doing to explain why it takes place was perhaps something that could be put right for future performances. Correspondingly I began to feel that some pieces could be improved, some omitted altogether and that other entirely new pieces could be included in their stead. What in fact was needed was the occasion to revise the 'Pilgrim' suite from top to bottom.

The occasion did present itself, and it did so in two ways. Firstly, towards the end of 1990 we were approached by Andy Morris, then manager of the newly-opened Glasgow Royal Concert Hall, to stage a performance of the suite, by now known by its album title, 'The Pilgrim'. This was to be on December 31st,-the last night of Glasgow's tenure of European City of Culture, which corresponded with the night before the same mantle fell, or was dropped, onto our own city of Dublin. Secondly, John Cook of Tara Music Company decided both to extend the albums life by transferring it to C.D. and to record the Glasgow Royal Concert. This meant that not only could the C.D., with its longer running time now include the suite in its entirety, it also meant that alterations made to work in time for the Glasgow performance would, with luck, find their way onto the new album. This was a rare opportunity and, while Brian Masterson, who had recorded the original album, located a digital machine and went with production manager Mick O'Gorman to explore the excellent amenities of the new hall in Glasgow, I began a limited period of revision on the score. Curiously enough I began by working up a song I had abandoned seven years before, but the melody of which had stayed fresh in my mind: 'Gair na Gairbe'- perhaps all the better for the delay and which I now offered to Iarla O'Lionaird. Next to add to the collection was 'The Deers Cry', the very beautiful and powerful early medieval text also known as 'St. Patricks Breastplate'. Although I had been given this text when first working on the suite and remember very much wanting to set it to music, for one reason or another it was not possible at that time. Since then however I had brought it to the stage where, sung by Rita Connolly, it had accompanied the closing titles of Granada Televisions documentary about the unjust imprisonment of the Birmingham six. As it stood the score awaited orchestra and choir. More immediately to hand was a piece I had composed for Liam O'Flynn, uilleann pipes and orchestra. This was originally housed as the last movement of a concerto but, with its echoes of great Atlantic waves, its virtuoso pipes part and the rare opportunity to record, I quietly moved it into the "Pilgrim" folder. As for the framework, I took a step which had before not seemed possible, of including the spoken word as a form of clarification of the journey undertaken in the new "Pilgrim'. As with most of the changes, it too had its origins in those seven frantic months of research and composition back in 1983.

Early in these all too brief researches I had encountered E.G. Bowen's book 'Saints, Seaways and Settlements' which describes how the spread of Celtic Christianity was effected by (and in turn stimulated) the development of western sea and land routes. During the so called 'Dark ages' the Celtic world continued to function, isolated from the Anglo-Saxon invasions elsewhere. Bowen describes the journeys of missionary monks from one Celtic region to another (and sometimes beyond) along commercial trading routes, sometimes on specific missions, at other times more in the spirit of a dare to prove beyond any doubt their faith in God, for these routes were inevitably perilous. In the songs for the suite I had looked for sources which touched upon these journeys and pilgrims when the Celtic world was perhaps more vigorously in touch, and more genuinely independent, than today. Hence 'Samson Peccator Espiscopus' follows a Welsh Bishop, previously Abbot of Howth, as he crosses Cornwall en route for Brittany. A similar coat-tail ride is provided by Colum Cille (St. Columba). His exile to Scotland and confrontation with Pictish druids. At this time I had the good fortune also to be introduced by Bill Whelan to Gearoid Mac Eoin, professor of Old and Middle Irish at Galway University. It was he who provided the introduction to many inspirational early Irish poems-including 'The Pilgrim' itself - which formed the basis to songs of which, both then and now, I am particularly proud. He did so in an open and kindly way for which I shall always be grateful.

However, the development of the above into a spoken role in which translations of these jewel-like mostly early Irish texts appear as bridges from one region to another has had to wait until 1993. This 'narrators' part has been assisted by a trial run at the Glasgow concert in 1990, by the artistry and erudition of the 'narrator's' himself, the actor Mick Lally, and by the choice of the metal-strung Irish harp of Helen Davies as accompaniment. Between them they create a bond between widely varied musical styles and also, I hope, that more explicit sense of journey which eluded the suite in its original form. Mick himself proposed the introduction to the Celtic world by the ancient Carthaginian explorer Himlico, and elsewhere supplied his own translations from the original. I owe Mick Lally a special debt for his contribution to this album. For introductions to the medieval music manuscripts of Santiago I am indebted in turn to members of Milladoiro, Sr. Carlos Nunez and Des Moore, for enabling the 'Pilgrim' suite to briefly refer to a genuine pilgrimage in the Celtic World i.e. the cult of St. James, whose bones are said to be buried as Santiago de Compostela in Galicia, the focal point of one of the great Christian pilgrimages since the 10th century.

The pilgrimage undertaken on this album is not intended as a companion to any present-day religion, although it does contain readings and musical settings of texts that testify to the early spreading of Christianity. These are presented more as a phenomenon, as an experienced deeply shared by all the Celtic peoples. Nor is 'The Pilgrim' intended as a work of scholarship, although it does indeed contain elements of individual scholarship of a very high order, borrowed from others whose contributions I gratefully acknowledge. I hope that these are presented in a way that honours them as well as providing enrichment to the suite as a whole. Above all 'The Pilgrim' is not a work of musical scholarship: this music is newly-composed, although it is informed by the spirit of the traditional music of the Celtic world and those who sing and play therein. It was certainly an awesome and privileged experience to work with the 200 performers who originally met on stage in Lorient in 1983 and again in Glasgow at the end of 1990. I hope that something of that special sense of occasion is present on this new album.

In mixing and assembling the new album Brian Masterson and I have tried to reproduce the dynamic of the live concert in Glasgow, as far as possible matching each title with the actual applause it received there. Occasionally we have omitted applause in order to allow the work to run without interruption. On the other hand, with the Glasgow concert serving as template, we have included some performances from 1983. These include items form the original outdoor premiere in Lorient. All 1983 material has been remixed to enable it to match the concert hall acoustic in Glasgow. The readings by Mick Lally accompanied by Helen Davies were recorded in studio.

The Lorient Festival Orchestra with; Helen Davies harp, Noel Eccles , percussion, Garvan Gallagher bass guitar, Paul MacAteer drums.
Conductor; Noel Kelehan
Soloists: - Liam O'Flynn, Rita Connolly, Iarla O'Lionaird, Sian James, Eric Marchand, Helen Davies, Bernard Pichard, Josik Allot, Youen Bihoun, Vincente Manuel Tunas, Carlos Real Rodreguez, Pipe Major Tom Anderson.
Choirs; Cord Gord'rer Garth, Kerensa and An Tryskell.
Wallacestone Pipeband: pipe major Tom Anderson: drum major Peter Anderson.

Glasgow 1990
The Glasgow Philharmonic Orchestra, leader Clive Thomas, with Helen Davies, harp; and Paul MacAteer, drums.
Conductor: Iain Sutherland
Soloists: - Liam O'Flynn, Rita Connolly, Iarla O'Lionaird, Iain MacDonald, George Macllwam, Helen Davies, Bernard Pichard, Josik Allot, David Wutherspoon.
Narrator: Mick Lally.
The City of Glasgow Chorus: chorus master, Graham Taylor.
City of Glasgow Pipes and Drums: pipe major, David Wutherspoon.
By permission of the Royal Glasgow Concert Hall; manager, Andy Morris and The Glasgow Philharmonic Orchestra managed by Jenny Wales.

Engineer : Brian Masterson
Assisted by : Pearse Dunne and Kevin Killenn (Lorient) Mary Kettle (Glasgow) , Robert Kirwan (Dublin), Eugene Ryder, Tony Faulkner
Technical Backup : Jim McDaid, Brain Dillon.
Producer : Shaun Davey , Special thanks to Bill Whelan for assistance during production in Lorient.
Stage Planning (Lorient) : P.J. Curtis
Production Assistant (Lorient) : Judy Lunny
Production manager (Glasgow) : Mick O'Gorman
Photography : Guy Christophe Coppel, Mark Maurice, John Cook, Daithi Connaughton, Gildas Jaffre.
'The Pilgrim' was mixed and assembled at Windmill Lane Studios, Dublin.

The Lorient Festival Orchestra
Conductor; Noel Kelehan
The Glasgow Philharmonic Orchestra
Conductor; Iain Sutherland.
Soloists; Josik Allot, Pipe Major Tom Anderson, Rita Connolly, Helen Davies, Iarla O'Lionaird, Liam O'Flynn, Bernard Pichard, Carlos Real Rodreguez, Vincente Manuel Tunas.
Narrator; Mick Lally.
Choirs; Cord Gord' rer Garth' Kerensa, An Tryskell, The City of Glasgow Chorus.
Pipebands; Wallacestone Pipeband. City of Glasgow Pipes and Drums.

Acknowledgements: Once again I acknowledge first and foremost the generosity and vision of the Lorient Interceltic Festival, particularly its Present, Mr Pierre Guergadic and Secretary, Mr Jean-Pierre Pichard, who stood by me at all times, and who helped in 1983 (see below). My thanks for a second chance are due to Andy Morris of the Glasgow Royal Concert Hall, Iain Sutherland the conductor of the Glasgow Philharmonic Orchestra, and all who participated in Glasgow, and to John Cook of Tara Music Company who goes once more into the breach. I also wish to record here my gratitude to Mr. Guy Berrier who has so beautifully conducted intervening performances of 'The Pilgrim' in Lorient.

Thanks to all who helped with preparation and research, especially: Jean-Pierre Pichard of the Conservatoire of Breton Culture; Gearoid Mac Eoin of Galway University; Polig Monjarret; Jack Williams of BBC Bangor; John Macinnes and Hamish Henderson of Edinburgh University; Roderick MacDonald Edward Maguire; Anges Davey; Michael Derrin; Colin Jerry; Doughie Alexander; Tomas MacRuairi; Beatrice Kerno; Gerranio Torriero; Claude Lassbliez; Georges and Bernard Gallinier; Denis Suttil; Rita Connolly; Garvan Gallagher; Jermy Webber; special thanks to N.J. William's for his interpretation and translation into Old Cornish of 'Samson Peccator Episcopus'; to Arthur ap Gwynne for permission to set to music extracts form 'Ymadawaid Arhtur' by T. Gwynne Jones; and to Arwyn Watkins of U.C.D. for his help with this text and for its English translation. Thanks to Daisy Williams for permission to include extracts form 'Exultation' translated by her husband Gwyn Williams.

Thanks to conductor Noel Kelehan for the 'Cue the busby' joke and all his work in 1983 and thanks to conductor Iain Sutherland for sustained good humour while bringing together all the elements on stage in Glasgow; thanks also to Graham Taylor, chorusmaster of The New Glasgow Chorus and David Wutherspoon, pipe major of The Glasgow City Pipes and Drums. Thanks also to Orla Cronin for assisting in the preparation of sleeve notes. Further acknowledgements: ' Early Irish Lyrics' by Gerard Murphy; 'Measgra Danta II' by Tomas O Rathile; Golden Treasury of Irish Poetry by David Greene and Frank O'Connor; 'The Oxford Book of Welsh Verse in English ', chosen by Gwyn Jones; ' The Penguin Book of Irish Verse', introduction and edited by Brendan Kennelly.

Track Notes

1. Himlico's Map: Colum Cille Leaves Derry. Mick Lally, Narrator and Helen Davies, metal-string harp. Himlico was a Carthaginian who was sent during the 6th or 5th century B.C. to explore the coastline of Western Europe. Although his original report is lost it is thought to form a basis of a poem by Avienus, a 4th century A.D. official of the Roman Empire. An extract from this, one of the earliest written descriptions of the Celts, is followed by three of a number of verses ascribed to Colum Cille at the time of his departure from Derry in the 6th century A.D.
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2. Gair Na Gairbe: Iarla O'Lionaird and orchestra. The lyrics are selected from the translation by Gerard Murphy of the mid -12th century Irish poem in which a monk describes the setting of Mo Ling's monastery (now St. Mullens in South Co. Carlow) by the tidal waters of the River Barrow, here referred to as `Garb' ('Rough One'). The final verse is prayer for protection against hell whose cry is rough!' (see translation).

Gair Na Gairbe Gair na Garibe glaídbinne glaídes re tosach
tuninne, rátha aidble aíbinne d'd'iasc oc irsnám 'na bruinne!

Gairit lem mo chomainmne, fégad lán línas
múru; buinne rothren reGairbe, uisce 'gá
chor ar cúlu

Is súairc immar glecaitsium tuile is aithbe
co n-uaire; imá-sech do-ecmaitsium sís is anis cech úaire.

Cairche cíuil at-chluinimse
sin Gairb go nglúaire geimrid ra muirn móir
con-tuilimse I n-aidche adúair eigrid.

Éoin chalaid co céolchaire,
céoilbinne a ngotha gnátha
impa rom-geib éolchaire,
'má ceilebrad cech trátha.

Céol na salm go salmglaine
I Rinn Ruis Bruic cen búaine; dordán daim
duinn damgaire do lecain Erce úaire;

Duilig trátha d'urmiasin
I mbentar cluic cen bailbe,
ra sían Inbir Dubglaise
ocus ra gáir na Gairbe.

Benn Boirche, Benn Bógaine,
is Glenn Bolcáin go mbailbe,
mór n-aidche, mór nónaide
tánac fagáir na Gairbe

Duilig trátha d'urmaisin
I mbentar cluic cen bailbe,
ra sían Inbir Dubglaise
ocus ra gáir na Gairbe.

A Mo Ling na connailbe
gus' tucus cenn mo báire
go nderna mo chomairge
ar ifrenn as garb gáire!

Gáir Na Gairbe (The Cry Of The Garb)
(Anon. C.1150 translated by Gerard Murphy)

The cry of the tunefully-roaring Garb sounding against the sea's first wave! Great lovely schools of fish swim about in its bosom. My patient activity is not wearisome to me, my looking at the tides which fill the banks: the mighty torrent of the great Garb, and the seawater thrusting it back.

It is pleasant to see how they wrestle, floodtide and cold ebb; they occur in due succession , perpetually up and down. I hear melodious music in the Garb at the time of its winter splendour: I sleep to the sound of great revelry on a very cold icy night.

Musical birds of the shore, music-sweet their constant cryings! Lonely longing has seized me to hear their chanting as they sing the hours.

Chanting of the psalm-pure psalms at the Point of Ros Bruic, which will not long be so called; roar of the brown belling stag from the cheek of cold Erc;

It is hard to attend to canonical hours at which loud bells are rung, by reason of the noise of Inber Dubglaise and the cry of the Garb.

Benn Boirche, Benn Bógaine, and silent Glen Bolcáin, many nights, many evenings have I come from them in answer to Garb's cry.

It is hard to attend the canonical hours at which loud bells are rung, by reason of the noise of Inber Dubglise and the cry of the Garb. Beloved MoLing, to whom I have come to play the end of my game, may you protect me against hell whose cry is rough!
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3. A Walk In The Ocean: Liam O'Flynn, uilleann pipes and orchestra. This follows on without a break from `Gáir na Garb', and aims to depict the ocean waiting beyond the turbulent estuarial waters described in the song, concluding with the giant breaking wavecrests of the Atlantic.
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4. The Pilgrim: Sung by Iarla O'Lionaird , accompanied by Liam O'Flynn, Uilleann pipes. The words, taken from a translation by Kuno Meyer of an Irish 10th century poem, recall the thoughts of a monk who prepares for a sea pilgrimage in the service of Christ (see translation). The pipes accompaniment makes use of both chanter and regulator chords.

The Pilgrim

In regsa, a Rí inna rún
íar coimse Clúm ocus céol
mo brogad for mara múr
mo chúl do thochar frim éol?

In mbia I mbochtai isin chath
tre rath in Ríg, rí cen meth
cen míad mór, cen charpat cloth,
cen ór cen argat cen ech?

Cen ól medrach mesetha druing,
cen tuaith truim, cen teglach torm,
cen brasscíath, cen aile n-arm,
cen chúach, cen chuirm is cen chorn?

Cen éitiud min mass ar súil,
cen chlúim nád cara nach naíb,
acht barrán beithe fo búaid
fo chuilche chráuid frim dá thaíb?

In timg´r celebrad cóir
d'innsi móir mace Míled múaid?
Indom tairbear fo Christ cuing
ria techt tar tuinn Mara Ruaid?

In tiurr mo láim do cach crécht
for brú tuinne tinnbi bá;rc?
In fuicé;b oc mara mú;r
slicht mo da glú;n isin trá;cht?

In toicéb mo churchán cíar
ós oicén uchtlethan án?
In reg, a Rí ríchid réil
as mo thoil féin for in sál?

Imba sessach, imba seng,
imba tressach tuirme glonn,
a Christ, in cuingéna frimm,
Ó thí co techt tar linn lonn?

The Pilgrim Anon. 10th Century. Translated By Kuno Meyer.

Shall I go, O King of the Mysteries, after my fill of cushions and music, to turn my face on the shore and my back on my native land?

Shall I be in poverty in the battle through the grave of the King, a King who does not fail, without great honour or a famous chariot, without silver and without a horse?

Without heady drink that intoxicates a throng, without a stout tribe, without retainers to protect me, without a swift shield or any weapon, without cup, ale, or drinking horn?

Without soft clothes that are pleasant to look at, without cushions which are no friend of any saint, but beech-twigs of virtue under a hard quilt for my body?

Shall I say a long farewell to the great island of the sons of proud Mil? Shall I offer myself under Christ's yoke before I cross the waters of the Red Sea?

Shall I cut my hand with every sort of wound on the breast of the wave which wrecks boats? Shall I leave the track of my two knees on the strand by the shore? Shall I take my little black currach over the broad-breasted glorious ocean? O King of the bright kingdom, shall I go of my own choice upon the sea?

Whether I be strong or poor, or mettlesome so as to be recounted in tales, O Christ, Will you help me when it comes to going upon the wild sea?

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5. Colum Cille's Farewell To Ireland: Mick Lally, narrator, Helen Davies, metal-string harp and orchestra. Further in the series of verses ascribed to Colum Cille, on his departure form Ireland, specially transformed from the original by Mick Lally, and placed here to assist a sense of journeying from one Celtic region to the next. Colum Cille, who is also known as St. Columba, founded his famous monastery on the Island of Iona, off the West coast of Scotland.

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6. The Land of the Picts: City of Glasgow pipe band. The Picts of Scotland, with their Druidic priests, practised what Christianity condemns as paganism. Put simply, their gods were natural phenomena such as the sun and moon. These two tunes, however, are not intended to have any particular descriptive properties, being chiefly intended to assist the pipeband's entry. On the other hand, no pipeband can enter a concert hall where an orchestra is already on stage without creating the expectancy of confrontation.

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7. `Iona': Tom Anderson, pipe major of the Wallacestone Pipe Band Orchestra. This air, a variation of the Pilgrim theme, is a survivor from the recording of the suites premiere performance in Lorient on the night of August 8th 1983. Although rather more `live' than the desirable (an unfortunate moment of p.a. feedback remains) it is included because of the grace of Tom Anderson's piping and for the almost tangible atmosphere of the 5,000-strong audience.

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8. Briochan And Columba: City of Glasgow Pipeband and orchestra. Briochan was the chief of King Brude MacMaelchon's druids with whom St. Columba (Colum Cille) had many legendary battles of will during his mission to Scotland in the time of the Picts. The legend converts this confrontation into a series of magic duels by which the founder of the monastery on Iona won the respect of the Scottish king.

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9. Storm At Sea: Iarla O'Lionaird, The City of Glasgow Chorus, and orchestra. The lyrics are taken from Kuno Meyer's translation of the anonymous Irish 10th century poem describing the power of the wind over the sea. It ends with a prayer for protection from `the horror of rough storms' from the great blast, from Hell with its furious tempest' (see translation) . Placed here, as it were between Scotland and Wales, `Storm At Sea' is intended to represent the Isle of Man.

Storm At Sea Anon. 11th Century. Translated by Kuno Meyer

There is a great tempest on the plain of Ler, bold over its high borders. The wind has risen, rough winter has killed us, and comes to us over the great wild sea

When the wind blows from the east the spirit of the wave is stirred; it longs to go past us westwards to the land over which the sun sets, to the blue sea, rough and wild.

When the wind blows from the north, the dark fierce wave longs to attack the southern world, to battle against the wide sky and to listen to the music of the swans.

When the wind blows from the west over the sea of fierce currents, it longs to go eastward past us to capture the sun-tree in the wide, far distant sea.

When the wind sets from the south over the land of the Saxons of stout shields and strikes the wave of Skiddy Island, it surges up to the top of Calad Nit with a leafy, blue grey cloak.

The ocean is full, the sea in flood; beautiful is the palace of the ships; the sandy wind has thrown eddies round near Inber na Dá Ainmech: the rudder goes swift in the wide sea.

The flood with its great force has burst over every broad rivermouth. The wind has come to us, winter's fury has killed us. Round Cantyre, round the land of Scotland, rushes a wild torrent, mountainous and fearful.

Son of God the Father with mighty hosts, save me from the horror of rough storms. Pure Master of the Sacrament, protect me form the great blast, from Hell with its furious tempest.

Storm At Sea
Anbthine mór ar muig Lir,
Dána tar a hardimlib;
at-racht gáeth, ran goin gaim garg
co tét tar muir mórgelgarb;
dos-árraid ga garggemrid.

O do-chuir in gáeth an-air
menma tuinne tarcabair;
dúthracair dul tarainn síar
cosin fót fris fuinnen graín
cosin glasmuir ngarglethain.

O do-chuir in gáeth a-túaid
dúthracair tonn temenchrúaid
co mbad fri domun an-des
fri fithnem ro ferad tres,
ro ésted fri elechdúain.

O du-chuir in gáeth an-far
tar in sáile srebachían
dúthracair dul tarainn sair
co crann gréine coros gaib
I muir lethan leborchían.

O du-chuir in gáeth an-des
tar tír Saxan scíathanbres
co mbenann tonn Inse Scit,
do- Liud do chuirr Calad Nit
co mbrut luibnech líathanglas.

Is Ián ler, is Ionmán muir,
is álainn in etharbruig;
ro lá curu in gáeth gainmech
im Inber na Dá Ainmech;
Is luath luí the lethanmuir.

Ro La tonn, trén a trethan,
tar cech inber íarlethan,
don-rocht gáeth, ron goin gaim gal,
im Chend Tire, im Tír nAlban
silid sreb Ian sliabdreman.

Mac De Athar, adblib scor,
rom ain ar grain garganfod;
fiadu firen na fleide
acht rom ain ar anside,
ar Iffern co n-ardanfod.

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10. A White Wave Foams Over: Mick Lally, narrator, with Helen Davies, concert harp. The text comes from the translation by Gwyn Williams of `Exultation' by the Welsh poet Hywel Ab Owain Gwynedd (d. 1170). As placed here it form an introduction to `Ymadawiad Arthur', and shares with it the theme of chivalry.

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11. Ymadawiad Arthur: City of Glasgow Chorus and orchestra with Helen Davies, concert harp. The lyrics, in Welsh, are selected from the epic poem by T. Gwynne Jones about the death and last journey of King Arthur (a legend common to several of the Celtic countries). The first part, in plainsong- style, describe Arthur being carried mortally-wounded from the battlefield, and is followed by verses in which he describes the Isle of Avalon (heaven) and choruses which contain the words `Be brave, dare to suffer….'

Lines Chosen Form Caniadau:
YMADAWIAD ARTHUR (The Death Of Arthur)

A gem-like light spread over Camlan
Gliding the sorrow of the battlefield
How beautiful at this moment
Was the cold stare of dead warriors.
Through blood and tight-packed
mounds of men
Bedevere carried Arthur,
Weakening now from the pain of wounds.

Bedevere walked without resting the heavy burden
Flushing his face, tightening his muscles;
There beneath him like a mirror of crystal
He saw a ship on the shining sea.

Be brave and pure
Suffer willingly
I go now to the fair Avalon

Yonder over the sea there is a tender land
Where there is no pain
The isle of Avalon where every soul
is free and content

Never will it be destroyed by faithlessness
Nor shame nor heartbreak.

(Repeat chorus)

From the depths of the desolate lake
A greyish white mist spread.
Slowly it moved
Until the ship beneath it melted away
And was hidden: like an apparition
It became lost in mist.

C Arthur ap Gwynne: all rights reserved

Troes gemliw wawl tors Gamlan,
Eurai fo drueni `r fan Onid teg, yr ennyd hon,
Drem oer y cedwyr meriwon;
Drwy y gwaed, dros dyrrau gwyr
Heb adwy, y dug Bedwyr ,
O`I nerth, y Brenin Arthur,
O lescai o loes y cur.

Cerddod Bedwyr heb orffwys a `r pwysau
Yn tanio `I wyneb tynhau `I ewynnua
Fel drych o risial glan odditano,
Y gwelai long ar y gloyw li yngo.


Bydd ddewr a glan
Baidd ddioddef ddiddan
Mi weithion I hinon Afallon af

Draw dros y don mae bro dirion nad ery
Ynys Afallon pob calon ya hon yn heiny a llon
Ni ddaw fyth I ddeifio hon golli ffydd,
Na thro cywilydd, na thorri callon.

(Repeat chorus)

O drofau`r Ilyn
Anial, Iledodd niwl Ilwydwyn;
Yn araf cyniweiriodd,
Ac yno`r Ilong dano a dodd,
A`I Chelu; fel drychiolaeth,
Yn y niwl diflannu a wnaeth.

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12. St. Manchan's Prayer: Mick Lally, narrator and Helen Davies, metal-string harp, translated and adapted form the original by Mick Lally, this 10th century anonymous Irish poem, describes the ideal monastic settlement as seen through the eyes of a missionary monk.

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13. Samson Peccator Episcopus: Vocals: Inez, Ursula and Rita Connolly, John Drummond, Shaun Davey and John Curran, and orchestra . According to history, St. Samson avoided the storms off Lands End by taking the land route that traversed the Cornish Peninsula. This he is believed to have done during the 6th century en route between his native Wales and Brittany where he founded the monastery as Dol. While in Cornwall he is said to have performed a miracle by causing a cross to be cut into stone. Of all the song lyrics this is the only counterfeit, original words by Shaun Davey, translated into old Cornish by Nicholas Williams of U.C.D. The Latin title comes from Samson's practice of signing himself as `Bishop Samson the Sinner'.

Samson Peccator Episcopus
Translated and adapted by Nicholas Williams from the original by Shaun Davey

On Padstow sand
the tide has fallen back
Fine horses pull and Irish chariot from the

Holy men from Wales
walk in this sunlight
and leave the tiderace far to the West.

On the Isthmus road
the Bishop's Chariot
pulled by piebald horses
from the sea.

On the Isthmus road
the Gentle Bishop
pulled by piebald horses
from the sea.

High on Cornwall
many travellers have gathered
to celebrate power over natural things.
On the Isthmus road
there came a miracle
A scared cross
cut into stone by s bishop's staff

Miracle! Miracle!
Samson Peccator Episcopus

The Isthmus road
leads to Fowey
Armorica, far-off Spain
Guernsey and Dol

On the Isthmus road
the Bishop's chariot
Pulled by fine horses
to the sea

On the Isthmus road
there came a miracle
a sacred cross
cut into stone by a bishop's staff
Round Lands End
the waves collect and tumble
pushed by wind and tide
into tumultuous fury

Samson Peccator Episcopus
Samson Peccator Episcopus

War dreth Landebrok mordryg yu
ha mes a`n basdowr - tecca vy-
y ten kert Gwydhal mergh dheulyw

Y kerth yn dan lagas an jeth
tus sans a Gembry war an treth
had orth'ga heyn y fros mor freth

An escop clor
yma ow tos
ny mes a`n mor
a dhe y ban.

An escop clor
Ha`y jaret splan
ny mes a`n mor
a dhe yn ban.

Dres an hal a omguntell
Lyes tremenyas a bell,
lu mur y`n pow,
ow solempnya mestrinsys
war elvennow oll an bys
yn cres Kernow
Ef a`n jeves bagyl wyn
yn y dhorn had ot, y`n men
marthus! mathus! Treghis yu crowspren
marthus! marthus!
Samson Peccator Episcopus

Forth an culdyr yth hembrynk,
dhe Fowey hag enesow Frynk
dhe Vreten Vyghad kefrys
ha dhe Spayn usy mar bell,
hag yn scaf dres morlenwel
dhe Dhol gwynvys.

Ottova, an epscop cuf
ha'y lorgh genwys yn y luf
war y jaret esedhys:
y vergh splan dhe`n mor ny nans
a`n ten nep yu dremas sans peghador kyn fe gylwys.

Ef a`n jeves bagyl wyn
yn y dhorn hag ot, y`n men
marthus ! marthus! treghys yu crowspren
marthus! marthus!

Samson Peccator Episcopus
marthus ! marthus! treghys yu crowspren
marhtus! mathus!
Y wheth gwyns cref
ugh Pen and Wlas:
ewpm a sef
a donnow bras
Ewon a sef
Samson Peccator Episcopus

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14. St. Matthews Point: Mick Lally, narrator, Bernard Pichard, bombarde, Helen Davies, harp, and orchestra . The text is an adaptation of a Latin prologue to a treatise by Bishop Patrick (d. 1084), who, during the last 10 years of his life, ruled the Hiberno-Norse city of Dublin. The bombarde is a traditional Breton instrument, often likened to the oboe though in some respects it is rather like the chanter of the Scottish bagpipes , mouth-blown. This variation on `The Pilgrim' song theme employs the full range of the instrument which is extremely difficult to play in its upper register. The piece takes its name from one of the outlying capes of N.W. Brittany . Bishop Patrick was drowned at sea while returning from a visit to a religious settlement in England.

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15. Danse Plin: Bernard Pichard, bombard; with Josik Allot , biniou. The combination of these two instruments is typical in Breton traditional music, the very small set of bagpipes (the biniou) play continuously, allowing the bombarde player to pause and draw breath. The rhythm of the piece is based on the Danse Plin, probably the simplest of Breton traditional dance steps.

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16. Bal Plin: Bernard Pichard and Josik Allot, bombardes, and orchestra. At traditional Fest Nos, dances are sometimes presented in groups of three: that in the middle, the `Bal' is typical slow and stately, and is designed to allow dancers to get their breath back.

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17. Dance An Dro: Bernard Pichard and Josik Allot, bombardes; and orchestra. This serves as the third in a trio of dances inspired by the joyous, community spirit of traditional Breton dancing. The piece uses the typical Breton device of giving alternative breathing spaces to the two players while dovetailing the start and end of each phrase.

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18. Santiago: Vincente Manuel Tunas Leis and Carlos Real Rodriguez, Galician gaitas; Iarla O'Lionaird, Rita Connolly and Shaun Davey, vocals: and orchestra. Gaitas are similar to Scottish bagpipes though sometimes, as here, tuned to `C'. The piece takes its name from Santiago de Compostela, a popular place of pilgrimage since the 10th century. The lyrics are again taken from `Gair na Gairbe', the point from which the journey on this album began.

from `The Cry of The Garb' (Anon. C.1150 translated by Gerard Murphy)

Gáir na Gairbe glaídbinne
gláides re tosach tuinne;
rátha aidble aíbhinne
d'íasc oc irsnám `na bruinne!

Is súairc immar glecaitsium
tuile is aithbe co n-úaire
imá-sech do-ecmaitsium
sis is an-is cech úaire

Is ríu sein con-tuilimse
ar bennaib is ar barrgail;
céola do-chluinimse
is airfeitiud dom anmain:

The Cry of the tunefully-roaring Garb sounding against the sea's first wave!
Great lovely schools of fish swim about in its bosom.
It is pleasant to see how they wrestle,
flood-tide and cold ebb; they occur in due succession,
perpetually up and down

I sleep to those melodies on mountain tops and tree tops;
the tunes which I hear are music to my soul:

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19. Vigo: Mick Lally. Narrator and Helen Davies, metal-string harp. The text is a translation and adaptation of verses from `Cantigas de Amigo' by Martim Codax, the 13th century Galican `Juglar'. The full version and its original musical setting can be found on a remarkable assembly of medieval music `The Pilgrimage to Santiago' by the New London Consort directed by Philip Picket.

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20. The Deers Cry: Rita Connolly, vocal; City of Glasgow Chorus and orchestra. The lyrics are taken from Kuno Meyo's translation of the 8th century poem sometimes, but apparently incorrectly, attributed to St. Patrick and alternatively entitled `St. Patrick's Breastplate'. The opening words in the original Irish, `atom-ruig' translated here as `I arise' have also been translated as 'I gird myself'. This prayer-poem served as a prayer for protection against the perils faced by medieval travellers.

The Deers Cry
Anon. 8th Century : Translated from old Irish by Kuno Meyer.

I arise today

Through the strength of Heaven
Light of sun
Radiance of moon
Splendour of fire
Speed of lightning
Swiftness of wind
Depth of the sea
Stability of earth
Firmness of rock

I arise today

Through Gods strength to pilot me
Gods eye to look before me
Gods wisdom to guide me
Gods way to lie before me
Gods shield to protect me

From all who shall wish me ill
Afar and anear
Alone and in a multitude
Against every cruel
Merciless power
That may oppose my body and soul

Christ with me, Christ before me,
Christ behind me, Christ in me,

Christ beneath me, Christ above me,
Christ on my right, Christ on my left,
Christ when I lie down, Christ when I sit down,
Christ when I arise, Christ to shield me

Christ in the heart of everyone who thinks of me,

Christ in the mouth of everyone who speaks of me
I arise today.

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21. God Be With Me: Mick Lally, narrator and Helen Davies, metal-string harp; selected verses from Gerard Murphy's translation form the 9th century poem in old Irish. With its reference to `every glorious pilgrim' and its plea for protection `against the fog-surrounded demons' (a reference to the perils of ship-wreck if ever there was one) but above all for its all-encompassing embrace of people of all races and persuasions this seems appropriate as the final spoken text.

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22. A `Ghrian: Sung by Rita Connolly with Cord Gord ' rer Garth and the Cornish Choirs Kerensa and An Tryskell, the Wallacestone Pipeband and Lorient Festival Orchestra. The text in Scots Gaelic comes from the Isle of Barra in the Outer Hebrides and consists of very ancient traditional verses relating to the worship of the sun and concluding with a fusion of this older tradition with the newer Christian tradition brought to Scotland by Colum Cille;`I am in hope, in its proper time, that the great and gracious God will not put out for me the light of grace even as thou dost leave me this night'.

A` Ghrian (To The Sun)
Anon. From the Isle of Barra

Hail to thee, thou sun of the seasons
As thou traversest the skies aloft,
Thy steps are strong on the wing of the heavens, Thou art the glorious mother
of the stars.

Thou liest down in the destructive ocean
Without impairment and without fear;
Thou risest up on the peaceful wave-crest
Like a queenly maiden in bloom. I
am in hope, in its proper time,
That the great and gracious God
Will not put out for me the light of grace
Even as thou dost leave me this night.

A` Ghrian

Failte ort féin, a sharian nan tráth,
`S tu siubhal ard nan speur,
Do cheumaibh treun air sgéith nan ard,
`S tu máthair áigh nan reul.

Thu laighe sios an cuan na dith,
Gun diobhail is gun sgath:
Thu'g éirigh suas air stuagh na sith,
Mar rioghainn og for blaith.

Tha misr an dochas `na thrath
Nach cuir Dia mor nan agh
As domhsa solas nan gras
Mar tha thusa dha m`fhagail a nochd.